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TRANS-SAHARA, GRAND EXPEDITION, 24 days: Marrakech – Dakar

TRANS-SAHARA, GRAND EXPEDITION, 24 days: Marrakech – Dakar

Tour Type:
International group
Group size:
from 5 to 16 participants
PRICES per person:
- Group of 5/6 guests: 9308€
- Single room supplement: 998 €
GUIDE: English, French, Italian speaking
Deposit at the booking:


The deposit is intended as 30% of the total. For more information, you can view our information.


Experience the Sahara, the largest desert on earth, with a north-south crossing, off the beaten path, over virgin sand dune belts, continuing into the savannah…


18 November 2023 (North-South Itinerary);

PRICE FROM: 8113 €

Dates Departure:
  • 18 November 2023 - 11 December 2023
Total: 2792

Special offer


Experience the Sahara, the largest desert on earth, with a north-south crossing, off the beaten path, over virgin sand dune belts, continuing into the savannah.
Marrakech, modern international destination and ancient caravan terminal is the ideal departure point for our expedition. In the Western Sahara other travellers don’t arrive and nomadic tribes of camel herders are authentic. Drive on the endless beaches of Rio de Oro to discover an astonishing landscape where the ocean floods in the desert: rocky hills and dunes, during the hight tide, becomes temporary islands. In Mauritania drive through virgin sands to discover remote oasis and stone citadels dating back to the 13th century as Chinguetti with its ancient collection of manuscripts and Ouadane the remotest of the oasis and further still to explore the geological mystery of Guelb Es Richat. Arrive to the northern savannah of Black Africa, encounter zebu herders, grass roof conical villages and tall Baobab trees.
Be on the Western point of the African Continent. Meet salt diggers and a fishermen village with thousands of colorful pirogues.
Enjoy traditional villages and contemporary Africa: metropolitan life in Dakar is vibrant: live music, galleries, meeting with young talents of the artistic scene, graffiti and street art.



Day 1: MARRAKECH Morocco
Individual arrival.
Meeting at 8 PM

Day 2: HIGH ATLAS Morocco
We will leave the main road to discover the least frequented Berber villages in the High Atlas Range and join the gem diggers in quest of Amethyst, Tourmaline. With their help we will be able to find our own gems. Our itinerary crosses Tizi n’Tichka pass at 7460 ft. on the southern side of the Atlas.
Arrival in Ouarzazate, a large oasis at the edge of the desert.

Our way will follow the first part of the Ouadi (river) Draa. This important river and its floods have created a long strip of vegetation with a continuous of palm grove hiding vegetables gardens that go south following the river for hundreds of miles in the desert, a long unique oasis with millions of date palm trees.
Visit of a site with hundreds of graffiti depicting hunters, warriors, horse raiders and wildlife; silent witness of peoples living in these regions thousands of years ago, before the desertification.
Lunch in a restaurant at the charming oasis of Zagora, our itinerary will continue along the Draa valley to Mhamid. South east of Mhamid the water of the river will vanish in the desert. Mhamid is the last permanent outpost before the total desert.

From Mhamid, the Sahara adventure starts; our 4×4 driving out of any tracks will cross a region of high dunes the Erg Chegaga that we will be able to cross in the middle. Here with a bit of luck we may encounter some rare and endangered white addax antelope… The addax is a critically endangered desert antelope that lives in some isolated regions of the Sahara.
After we reach Iriki dry Salt Lake and a site where each of us will be able to find their own fossils.

On the road again, to cross a region of spectacular scenery, rocks, mountains and large oasis.
We will live the road to discover how, for centuries, the water is shared between the different gardens in the palm grove. An ancient water hourglass still mark the time of irrigation for each garden.
Walk in the oasis to discover this green miracle surrounded by an arid environment.

In the rarely visited region of Assa we will have discovered an ancient Arabo-Berber stone architecture that we will see again thousands of miles south, on the other side of the Sahara in Chinguetti and Ouadane oasis of Mauritania, that in the ancient time were linked with Assa by a caravan route that we will partially try to retrace.
The small town of Guelmim, is an ancient caravan terminal. Here we will search for the remains of the ancient Trans-Sahara trade…
From this point onward, the itinerary will follow the “fling route” of the paleo-artic birds that migrate from Northen Europe and Russia to Africa every year during their winter season. The migratory birds travelling like us from north to south will be a discrete reference for our itinerary as far as to the Bijagos archipelago in Guinea Bissau.
A spectacular ghost military fort still “guards” the former borders between the French protectorate of Morocco and the Spanish Sahara, the scouting of the fort will make us feel like being we were on the set of an old French Foreign Legion movie.

Once left Tafnidilt, we cross a steep range of dunes to reach the Dra estuary region, visited only by brave travellers who dare to find their way on the sandy tracks between the cliffs and the Atlantic Ocean. Here, we will discover tiny temporary settlements of fishermen, ghost colonial military posts, dunes and camels in a virgin landscape, and if lucky, we will drive for miles on a wild beach where the high dunes meet the ocean.
We live the coastline, following a riverbed (Ouadi) in a large canyon: the only possible path between the high dunes, cliffs and ocean.

From Tan-Tan, the road follows an exciting itinerary through a crag on the edge between the Sahara and the Ocean. The Naila salt lagoon, separated from the ocean by rows of dunes, with an estuary on the sea, is the largest Salt Lake in Morocco (100 square Km). A protected area of great natural beauty is an important resting point on the birds’ migratory way journey, it can host up to 20.,000 individuals as flamingos, cormorants, gulls, herons… and more.
We will board local fishing boats to explore this the emerald water enclosed in a wide frame of yellow dunes and brown escarpments.
Late afternoon arrival at the tiny town of Tarfaya on the Juby Cape, less than 100 km away from the Canary Islands. Tarfaya is a former “Aeropostale” base, pioneered airmail from Europe to Africa and Latin America. Interesting museum and the remains of colonial Spanish architecture. In Tarfaya, Saint Exupéry the famous aviator and writer, author of “Le petit prince” was familiar.

In Laayoune we will meet our local guide, a nomad from a Sahrawi tribe who will lead us through a three-day off-road expedition crossing the Western Sahara from north to south. The former Spanish Sahara colony has been the site of a long war between the Polisario Armed Front and the Moroccan army. Nowadays, it is part of Morocco. Since the second half of the seventies, due to this long “sand war,” this region has been off-limits to travellers. Until today no peace treaty has been signed, but it’s been decades since any fighting has occurred in the region which we cross. We are proud to be the “first” to bring intrepid travellers to the vast, sandy regions of Saguia El Hamra, Tiris Zemmour and to the spectacular Rio de Oro sea-look. In this Saharan expedition, we will cross large dunes to discover wells frequented by long lines of camels belonging to the legendary Reguibat nomads.

Morning continuation of our Trans-Saharan expedition, through a region of dunes, wells and nomadic camps. In the afternoon, a road will bring us to the ocean.

Day 12: RIO DE ORO Morocco
The astonishing beauty of Dakhla peninsula landscape makes it a unique place.
The Rio de Oro is a 25mile long sea loch between cliffs and dunes. Pastel colors paint the scenery: the blue ocean, yellow sand, emerald seaweed fields and dark rocks. Experience a unique event: during the high tide the ocean will flood the desert: a white dune and rook hills will become temporary islands.
The small town of Dakhla was founded by Spanish navigators in 1502 as “Villa Cisneros.” Visit to the colorful fishing harbour, lunch in an oyster farm. Driving along the shore to discover where the waves lap the sand dunes. Dinner in a typical restaurant.

Day 13: BORDER: LINES IN THE SANSD Morocco – Mauritania
Our way runs on the spectacular cliff between the desert and the ocean. We follow the only open road going south. A signboard indicates that we are “on” the Tropic of Cancer. At Guerguerat military post we will cross the southern border post of Morocco, the only open route between Maghreb and Black Africa a sensible site. We will travel a few miles into no-man’s land, in a very sensitive area. The boundary is a theoretical line in the desert that “divides the sand from the sand”, on the other side, the military post of Mauritania.
Evening arrival to Nouadhibou.

Days 14 & 15: SAHARA EXPLORATION Mauritania
Visit on Nouadhibou on the spectacular “Golf du Levrier”. Market and time to buy Ouguiya the local currency. In the afternoon we will drive south and stay overnight at Cap Tafarit hotel facing the Ocean. Next morning, thanks to the experience of our staff, we will make or own way tracing an unmarked path in the sand ocean of Inchiri region, one of the least known parts of Mauritanian desert.

An absolute “out of any track” itinerary will find the way through high dunes.
To cross long ranges of dunes, we will decrease the tire pressure, GPS, maps and, compass will assist our land-navigation in an untouched geological universe. Erg Amatlich is one of the most beautiful dune ranges in Mauritania, the Sahara can make a traveller feel like the first person on a planet. We will be able to discover traces of thousand years old human presence such as stone tools and shards of potteries. When some rare graze will appear, we will discover some nomadic settlements. These human encounters, after the deep silence of the Sahara, are intense. We will enter in the scenic landscape the Adrar massif: valleys, high mountains, yellow sand dunes, peaks of dark and red rock. We will visit remote oasis and tiny adobe villages.
Evening arrival in Chinguetti.

Day 17: CHINGUETTI, THE OASIS Mauritania
Chinguetti stone citadel dates back to the 13th century and is a cross-point of different trans-Saharan routes linking the Mediterranean coasts to Black Africa. The atmosphere of the old stone town, the architecture, some ancient manuscript collections from the Middle-ages and the oasis with their “green miracles” of palm trees and gardens surrounded by the immensity of the Sahara are the special highlights of Chinguetti. Large chains of yellow dunes are the western boundary of the town that “fights” not to be covered by the sand.
The main Mosque and the stone minaret: Chinguetti mosque is the second oldest still operating in the entire Muslim world.
We will spend the whole day in the magical atmosphere of this desert cittadel, which is considered the jewel of Mauritanian oasis, discovering two ancient manuscript collection, including Ould Habott, the largest in Mauritania.

Day 18: OUADANE, THE REMOTEST Mauritania
We will drive to Ouadane in an absolute “out of any tracks” itinerary that follows a Ouadi (dry creek), discovering tiny oasis hidden in the high dunes. Entire day experience Ouadane the remotest oasis in Mauritania, an outpost in the emptiness of the desert. Ouadane was founded in 1147, while most of it fell into ruin, some of its stone houses, perched on a rocky hill, surrounded by the immensity of Sahara, are still inhabited. Back in time, this town was an important caravan trading point. Trading was so flourishing that, in 1487, Portuguese built a fortified counter in the region.
Return to our comfortable base in Chinguetti.

Day 19: GREEN OASIS Mauritania
The landscape will never cease to amaze us. Leaving the main track, we will reach a region of spectacular mountains, gorges and canyons. Infinite space dominated by the ochre of the earth and the blue sky. At the horizon we will see the ruins of Fort Saganne, built to set the namesake film: Fort Saganne, starring Gérard Depardieu and Catherine Deneuve (1984).
The Agrour site, located at the top of the Amogjar pass, hide prehistoric cave paintings featuring bovids, hunters and herders.
After a short visit of Atar market we join Azougui, the ruins of what has been the capital of an Almoravid kingdom in the 11th century. The Almoravid, called in the Arab word “Al-Murabitun” where a Muslim warriors puritan and radical brotherhood originated from nomadic tribes from the north of actual Mauritania. Between 11th and 12th century Almoravid looted the Ghana Empire, founded Marrakech, conquered Morocco, part of Algeria and the southern part of Spain.
Terjit, is one of the most particular and lush oasis of Mauritania. After walking through a dense palm grove protected by a gorge and following a tiny stream, we discover a vast rock shelter where spring water flows. An unexpected atmosphere disconnected from time and from the harshness of the desert.

Day 20: NOUAKCHOTT Mauritania
From the desert to the ocean, from Sahara to black Africa.
As resume of Mauritanian history and culture, visit of the interesting National Museum which displays archeology, artifacts, costumes and textiles from prehistory to the present days. Unique the pictures taken during excavations of Aoudaghost, the northern trading town and better conserved site of the legendary Ghana Empire. Ghana was the oldest Empire and Kingdom known in Black Africa. Dated from the 6th century, the empire was in the actual southern east of Mauritania. At that time from Aoudaghost, starts the caravan carrying gold to North Africa and passing by Ouadane and Assa that we had discovered during our Sahara crossing. Lunch in a trendy restaurant, known for the “catch of the day”, other meals other than fish are available. Hundreds of colorful pirogues lined the beach on Nouakchott fishing harbour will leave us amazed. Our eyes, accustomed to sand and dunes, will be reflected in tumultuous waters, in which wind, waves, brightly painted pirogues and sub-Saharan (mainly Senegalese) fishermen selling the abundant catches to the market. Mauritania processes more than 1,800,000 tons of fish each year.

Day 21: DJOUDJ NATIONAL PARK MauritaniaSenegal
Early morning departure in direction south to Senegalese. The natural border between Mauritania and Senegal is the Senegal River a natural boundary between desert and savannah. We will cross the river on a mobile bridge and move into a unique wet land between Sahara and Sahel.
The Djoudj National Park, declared a World Heritage Site, is a green oasis formed by hundreds of miles of partially flooded lands. This “humid paradise” is the best habitat and nesting site of over a million migratory and sedentary birds.
Totally surrounded by an arid landscape the protected wetland habitat attract migratory birds, more than 400 species live temporarily in this unique bird sanctuary. We will enjoy a boat excursion to visit an island with an astonishing concentration of pelicans.
Arrival in the evening to Saint Louis.

In the morning, visit of Saint Louis, the first capital of the French colonies in West Africa AOF (Afrique Occidental Francais), a charming old town, situated on two twin islands: the colonial and the local, the two located between Senegal River and the ocean. The best way to roam the narrow streets of Saint Louis is on board of a calash, like the locals do! A walk will complete the discovery of the fisherman quarters. We will leave Saint Louis to reach Lampoul dunes. Dinner and overnight stay at Ecolodge Lampoul, in fancy fix camp, comfortable en-suite tents with beds.

Spectacular drive to discover the largest fisherman village in Senegal, more than 4500 wooden pirogues came to the shore with the catch of the day. We will leave our vehicles for a less intrusive and fun local transport, a donkey chariot, ideal way to approach the fisherman selling their catch to the women, the queens of the market. We will familiarize with the artisans carving the large pirogues, the painters decorating them with bright colors. We will end the visit with an interesting encounter: a “Marabut” (local holy man) will receive us in his large mansion. Specializing in blessings intended to protect dugouts and fishermen, the Marabut will know how to introduce us to ancient techniques of geomancy and divination.
Lac Rose, locally known as Lac Retba, is a shallow saltwater lake surrounded by dunes. Due to the high concentration of salt, the lake often shimmers in pink, swimming in the lake gives the sensation of floating. More than 600 people collect salt from the water in an artisanal way.
Arrival to Dakar, ferry to Gorée Island. The right time to enjoy Gorée atmosphere is at sunset when all tourists are gone and, in the morning, before the crowd arrives. In Gorée island, slaves were crammed, waiting to be shipped to the Americas, entirely restored, the island still bears witness of those times. Nowadays, its breezy climate, history and ancient architecture, together with nice restaurants and boutiques, make Gorée an interesting and trendy destination for local and foreign visitors.

Before the crowds arrive, we will live leave the island on the ferry to Dakar. Dakar became an important centre of the political, artistic and intellectual “renouveau” during the independence time and it is still the liveliest metropolis in the French-speaking West Africa. In the “Musée des Civilisations Noires”, we can admire great collections of Tribal Art, textiles, and contemporary local art. Discover “Plateau” district, the Presidential Palace, a typical market. Lunch at the “fishing club restaurant” known for the best catch of the day (vegetarian and other meals available) . The totally restored Dakar-Bamako railway station, a great case of Art-Deco architecture dating from French colonial times, meeting with young artist specialized in the Graffiti ( street art) that has made Dakar a centre of contemporary metropolitan culture. Visit to galleries and handicraft markets.
Day use rooms available, transfer to the airport.

UNIQUE DEPARTURES: This departure is part of the Trans-Sahara and West Africa Grand Expedition from Marrakech to Dakar and Cotonou.

EXPEDITION LEADERS: with long experience of West Africa, and knowledge of the regions and local cultures, assisted by local guides.

EXPLORATORY ITINERARY: This journey is an expedition; participants must be flexible and ready to enjoy the unique encounters, but also some unexpected situations that are part of the “African Experience”.

TRANSPORTS: a great variety of landscapes, cultures and nature go hand in hand with the choice of the different transports, each one being the best to discover and enjoy each different environment.
On land: for most of the itinerary on roads, tracks and virgin dunes, we will drive in 4WD air-conditioned vehicles, on some asphalt roads we will travel in air-conditioned minibus. For brief but funny rides we will experience colourful local bush Taxi, traditional calash and donkey chariot.
On water: fishermen boat in Naila lagune, ferry to Gorée island.

Yellow fever: mandatory for those participating at the part of the expedition from Senegal to Cotonou (from day 20th of the program).
Cholera: not required at the time of editing the program, please check before departure.
Malaria prophylaxis: absolutely recommended for those participating at the part of the expedition from Nouakchott (from day 20th of the program).

Morocco: Not required for most nationalities. Please check.
Mauritania: Required. We will obtain visas at the border (cost 55 Euro).
Senegal: Visa not needed for most nationalities including US, Canada and European union citizens. Please contact us for the complete list. If visa needed please obtain two entry visa.

Lunches: cold meals (picnics) or restaurants.
Dinners: in the hotels we will enjoy a great variety of fish specialties. Vegetarian or specific meals are available on request, please contact us in advance.
Mobile camps: simple dinners made of local fresh products integrated with conserved food; bottled water included. Wine or beer included, except in Mauritania, mention your choice at the departure.

HOTELS: Carefully chosen, due to a possible lack of rooms’ availability in some hotels, the tour leader may have to replace hotels with others as similar as possible. Four star hotels in the capitals and more. Best available hotels inland, always with air-conditioned rooms.

MOBILE CAMPS: Two nights camping, in the remotest part of the Western Sahara. Camping in the immensity of the Sahara is an unforgettable experience. Modern tents, installed over mats, mosquito nets, portable beds, mattresses and chairs. A large restaurant tent will be set for dinner. A tent will be dedicated to “facilities”. Please bring your own light sleeping-bag or sleeping-sheet or let the guide know at the beginning of the tour.

LUGGAGE: Due to the nature of the itinerary (bear in mind the boat rides and camps), please limit your personal luggage to 45lb (20 kg), soft sacs are recommended.

INSURANCE: Mandatory for medical assistance (health care), repatriation, physical and material damages. TransAfrica will not be held responsible for any material and physical damages during or in consequence of the tour. Discover an insurance policy proposal:;

NOTICE: The itinerary is designed to experience fascinating places where foreigners hardly arrive. We need to be tolerant and flexible to fully appreciate the unique nature and wildlife, the spontaneous hospitality of the local populations, the African magic and mystery, the metaphysics, ceremonies, life philosophies and religious beliefs that people are willing to share with us.
Itineraries, visits, overnights and accommodations are subject to changes, improve and adapt to : tides time, recent experiences and news from the fields, force majeure. The changes are decided by the organizer. We are not responsible for any delays and cancellation due to external conditions.

Price include:

  • Transfer airport/ hotel and hotel/ airport at arrival and departure, EXCEPT the first day from the airport to the hotel In Marrakech. The fixed price for a Taxi from the airport to any hotel in Marrakech is 200 Dirhams or 20 Euro.
  • Transfers and tour in 4WD vehicles, minibus and boats
  • The equivalent of a bottle of water a day during the visits.
  • Accommodation in standard rooms, as per itinerary
  • All meals, from breakfast of day 2 to breakfast of last day
  • Drinks at meals during the nights in the mobile camp.
  • Entrance fees to parks, concessions, protected areas and cultural sites.
    Tour Leader (languages spoken English, French and Italian
  • First Aid box
  • All service charges and taxes


Prices do not include:

  • International flights
  • Transfer from Marrakech airport to the hotel in Marrakech on day 1.
  • Earlier (prior to day 1) and/or later (after last day) transfers from and to airport
  • Visa fees
  • Any meal or sightseeing other than those specified
  • Mineral water and drinks at restaurants and hotels
  • Portage.
  • Fees for personal photos and videos
  • Personal and travel insurance (compulsory)
  • Tips for drivers, guides, portage and hotel staff
  • Costs related to delayed program or lost luggage
  • Any item of personal nature such as phone calls, laundry, etc
  • Whatever is not mentioned as included

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