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THE EXPLORATION, MAURITANIA, 18 days: oases, Sahara exploration to the oldest empire

THE EXPLORATION, MAURITANIA, 18 days: oases, Sahara exploration to the oldest empire

Tour Type:
International group
Group size:
From 4 to 16 participants
PRICES per person:
- Group of 4/5 guests: 6031 €
- Single room supplement: 456 €
GUIDE: English, Italian, French speaking
Deposit at the booking:


The deposit is intended as 30% of the total. For more information, you can view our information.

This itinerary is part of the Full Expedition in Mauritania
. A new expedition through Mauritania, an itinerary that is the outcome of many years of research in this part of the Sahara. The itinerary starts in Nouakchott, the capital, and continues for a brief visit to the highlights in Chinguetti and Ouadane. Chinguetti has a magical atmosphere, one of the most well-conserved oases in the whole Sahara.


22 February 2023

20 December 2023

PRICE FROM: 4684 €

Dates Departure:
  • 22 February 2023 - 11 March 2023
  • 20 December 2023 - 6 January 2024
Total: 1809

Special offer



A new expedition through Mauritania, an itinerary that is the outcome of many years of research in this part of the Sahara. The itinerary starts in Nouakchott, the capital, and continues for a brief visit to the highlights in Chinguetti and Ouadane. Chinguetti has a magical atmosphere, one of the most well-conserved oases in the whole Sahara.

Ouadane was founded “just” in 1147 of our era. It is the remotest oasis in Mauritania and the western outpost before the total emptiness… Where we will continue.

Guelb er Richat is called by the geologist the “Eye of Africa”: a geological mystery, a series of three concentric rock circles, the largest one having a diameter of 40 kilometers (25 mi). The rarely visited El Ghallaouiya canyon hosts more than six hundred graffiti figures, depictions of warriors, chariots, hunters, wild animals, and more, a unique “open sky gallery” taking us back thousands of years at a time before the desertification when the desert was a green savannah.  From the abandoned colonial time fort in El Ghallaouiya, the real exploration starts: beyond the horizon, hundreds of kilometers of virgin sand and ranges of dunes. We will “navigate” along the immensity of Erg Ouarane. The only human traces that we will find in the next few days, will be prehistoric stone tools. We will partially try to retrace the oldest caravan route that linked North Africa with the Ghana Empire back in the sixth century.

Aoukar is a range of escarpments that create a spectacular landscape of dark mountains. The range divides the large dunes of Ouarane in the North from the Aoukar depression in the South. We will join a caravan route that dates back to the eleventh century linking Oualata with the western part of Mauritania to discover Makhrouga, one of the most spectacular rock erosions: nature has sculptured a rock massif in the shape of elephants. Some graffiti depicting an archaic Berber alphabet are witness to an ancient human presence.

Following the caravan route, we arrive at Oualata, a Word Heritage Site unique to the traditional frescoes that decorate the facades of the adobe houses. The colorful arabesques and geometric patterns exclusively made by women, as in the rest of West Africa, make Oualata a unique oasis.

A remote track will take us to the Aoudaghost archaeological site with miles of ruins hidden by the mountains. Aoudaghost was the northern town of the Ghana Empire, the oldest known Empire in Black Africa, dating back to the sixth century. It was a rich trading center, where merchants coming from North Africa acquired gold dust. The Arab chroniclers described it in the manuscripts as beautiful as Mecca. We will explore paved alleys and remains of stone buildings. Only a few sites of Aoudaghost have been studied by French archaeologists in the early sixties, but today all trace of the excavations has been covered by sand and disappeared, and we will have the impression to be the first on the site. We leave Aoudaghost to discover Dogba, a large and mysterious stone town that has not been studied or excavated yet.

Out of any track, we will arrive at deep caves hiding granaries, graffiti, and rock paints.
On the way to Nouakchott, we reach Kiffa, renowned for the traditional glass beads produced by Moorish women.

Arrival in Nouakchott. Transfer and overnight at hotel Azalai, four stars, international standards.

Day 2: ATAR
After the visit to the interesting Nouakchott museum that display costumes and archeological object from all over the country will start a day of scenic drive north. The first part will be in a spectacular landscape of dunes to reach finally the region of Adrar mountain and the town of Atar in the evening.
Dinner and overnight Hotel Etoile du Nord or similar comfortable self contained air-conditioned rooms.

Drive to Chinguetti and Ouadane. Chinguetti is an ancient caravan terminal and an important trading point between North and Black Africa.
The stone village at a cross point of different caravan routes dates back to the thirteenth century and is reckoned nowadays as the jewel of the Mauritanian oases.
In the old stone quarters, we will be invited to visit two ancient manuscript collections. The white stone mosque is considered the second ancient, still operating in the world.
Ouadane, founded in 1147 on a rocky hill, is the remotest oasis in Mauritania, an outpost facing the immensity of the desert. Mainly in ruins, some of his stone houses are still inhabited. In the ancient days, Ouadane was a caravan trading point between the Maghreb and Black Africa.
Commerce was so flourishing that in 1487 the Portuguese built a fortified trading counter in the region.
Dinner and overnight at Agoueidir comfortable guest house, airconditioned, and all ensuite rooms or similar.

Guelb er Richat, a geological mystery called by the geologists the “Eye of Africa” is a landmark for the astronauts. Three concentric rock rings around an interior hill, the largest ring having a diameter of 40 kilometers (25 ml). Geologists have formulated different hypotheses on the origins: the first is that the phenomena have been caused by an enormous meteorite that fell on earth. The more recent theory believes that it is the result of erosion on a large volcanic dome. Camp in the desert.

Off-road itinerary between spectacular rock chains with an astonishing view of the desert and possible encounters with remote groups of nomads.
The canyon of Trig Chauail is an impressive spectacle: some flat surfaces of rock covered with petroglyphs. The region hides more than 220 panels with 600 different motives, a real “open sky” retrospective exhibition on the last 6000 years of Rock Art in the Sahara. From the time before the desertification, displaying warriors, horses pulling chariots, cattle, and wildlife as elephants and antelopes, to more recent times displaying camels (dromedaries) that arrived in the Sahara with the final desertification, approximately 2000 years ago. Camp at the abandoned fort of El Ghallaouiya, built by the French colonial “camel battalions”, has the typical atmosphere of the foreign legion.

Days 6, 7, 8: IMMENSITY
Departure for the total emptiness. We will find our way out of any track through the immensity of Erg Ouarane: large more than 800 Kilometres of continuous dunes and virgin sand over the horizon, a pure Sahara experience.
GPS, compass, local guide, and years of experience will help us to navigate through one of the less-known parts of the Sahara, the largest desert on Earth, in its more perfect form, as only imagination can represent.  Camps between the dunes.

The arrival to the Aoukar rocky chains is memorable. Aoukar mountain chains are as difficult as spectacular. It was the shore of a large lake, now vanished in the desert, and remains of numerous prehistorical villages are hidden between rocks and sand. In that humid period, the region was intensely inhabited. Some experts estimate that in the Neolithic the Aoukar was hosting a population of 400.000 inhabitants, being, at that time, one of the largest inhabited places.
Arrival to Oualata. Overnight in a guest house that will be our base for two nights.

Full day dedicated to Oualata, World Heritage Site and a unique and spectacular oasis dating back from the eleventh century. Hidden by rocky hills, it was an important southern Saharan caravan terminal.
Oualata traditions are still alive. What makes special adobe architecture are the frescoes decorating the entrances (and the interior) of the houses. These frescoes are painted exclusively by women that from centuries have passed this technique from mother to daughter.
Women of different ethnic groups of the savannah in West Africa create complex frescoes often hiding symbolic meanings. Frescoes link the local Berber population with Black African female traditions.
We will visit the small museum that exhibits a collection of manuscripts. 

Days 12, 13, and 14: ON THE WAY TO AOUDAGHOST
We leave Oualata following a track to join the road from Nema to Ayoun el Atrous. Then, we leave this road and follow a track toward the northwest.
One of the main highlights of the itinerary is the archaeological site of Aoudaghost with its miles of ruins hidden in the mountains. Aoudaghost is believed to have been the northern trading town of the Ghana Empire, the oldest known empire of southern Sahara, dating back to the sixth century.
Aoudaghost was a rich caravan town being its more famous trade, gold dust. In ancient Islamic manuscripts, it was described as great as Mecca. Only a few areas of Aoudaghost have been studied by archaeologists in the early ’60 but nowadays, the sand has covered any trace of the few excavations, and there, we will have the impression to be the first on the sites after one thousand years. Thanks to the remoteness of the place, these sites are rarely visited. We will discover in the area the mysterious remains of another stone town, Togba, totally unknown. A large detour to explore deep caves, a unique experience: thanks to our torchlight, we will discover prehistoric millstones, decorated granaries, and more.

Day 15: KIFFA
Arrival to Kiffa, renowned for its traditional glass beads produced by Moorish women, and for the market with traders specialized in artisanal and ancient beads.
Overnight at the Hotel Emel or similar, air-conditioned and en-suite rooms; basic but clean.

Days 16 and 17: THE ROAD OF HOPE
This asphalt road, known as “la route de l’espoir” (the road of hope), links southwestern Mauritania with the coast and the capital. Visit villages and camel markets.
Day 16 – Overnight at a camp.
Day 17 – Overnight at Aleg in Hotel Oasis or similar, air-conditioned and en-suite rooms; basic but clean.

Expected arrival in Nouakchott in the afternoon. Day rooms available at Azalai Hotel, 4 stars. Transfer to the airport. End of our services.

EXPEDITION LEADER: Alberto Nicheli, TransAfrica founder, has been travelling in North and West Africa since  1972. He has led more than a hundred expeditions in West Africa and sixty-five Sahara missions, including solo crossing of the desert, ethnological research on Tuareg and rock art, exploratory expedition retracing ancient caravan  routes between Taoudenni salt mines in Mali and Oualata in Mauritania. He has organized the logistics of a documentary film on the caravans in the Sahara for Discovery Channel, assisted National Geographic photographers Angela Fisher and Carol Beckwith and organized the logistic of numerous research projects and television programs on West Africa. Alberto has an expertise in tribal art and ancient to contemporary West African history.

EXPLORATORY ITINERARY: This travel program is an exploratory expedition. The itinerary is designed to experience fascinating places where  foreigners don’t or hardly arrive. Scheduled itinerary, visits, are given as an indication and could be changed at the solo decision of the expedition leader. Wind , visibility, ground conditions, local authorities’ decisions, events of “force majeure”, technical, mechanical or other unexpected events may delay or change our schedule. TransAfrica can’t  be considered liable for any changes and delays.
Participants must be flexible to full experience unique encounters, discoveries, and astonishing landscapes as much as some unexpected situations that are part of the “African experience”.

TRANSPORTS: 4WD, air-conditioned vehicles and logistic pickup. Local sailing boat at Banc d’Arguin.

MEDICAL and VACCINATIONS: Malaria prophylaxis: recommended for the first and last part of the itinerary (From Nouakchott to Chinguetty and from Nema to Nouakchott).

VISA: required. Available at Nouakchott airport, on arrival (55 €).

MEALS: Lunches: cold meals, mainly picnics or in local restaurants.
Dinners: in the hotels: touristic menu.
At our mobile camps: simple but tasty hot dinners composed by fresh local products integrated by preserved food. Bottled mineral water included.
Please mention any diet prescription at the time of booking.

CAMPS: Camp in the immensity of Sahara is an unforgettable experience. Igloo tents fitted for tropical climate; camping mattress included. Please bring your own sleeping-bag . Nights in the Sahara can be cold and windy.

LUGGAGE: Due to the nature of the itinerary, please limit your personal luggage to 45lb (20 kg), soft sacs are recommended.

INSURANCE: Mandatory for medical assistance (health care), repatriation, physical and material damages. TransAfrica will not be held responsible for any material and physical damages during or in consequence of the tour. Discover an insurance policy proposal:

Prices include:

  • Transfer airport/ hotel and  hotel/ airport at first and last day.
  • Full board during the expedition. Lunch on the last day.
  • Drinks at meals during the nights in the mobile camp. Alcohol is not accepted in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania.
  • Transfers and expedition in 4WD vehicles and one day sailing on local boats.
  • Tour Leader (languages spoken: English, French and Italian)
  • Tours and visits as per the program
  • Participation cost to events, as scheduled
  • Accommodation as per the program
  • First aid box
  • A bottle of mineral water each day during the transfers.
  • All services included in the program


Prices do not include:

  • International flights
  • Visa
  • Dinner on the arrival and departure days
  • Drinks and mineral water at meals in hotels, except for those at the nights in the mobile camps
  • Fees for personal photos and videos
  • Personal insurance (compulsory)
  • All tips
  • Any items of personal nature, such as phone calls, laundry, etc.
  • Whatever is not mentioned as included

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