WEST AFRICA, FORESTS & PEOPLE, 27 days: Bissau – Cotonou
WEST AFRICA, FORESTS & PEOPLE, 27 days: Bissau – Cotonou
Discovery International group
From 4 to 16 participants
PRICES per person: - GROUP OF 6 OR MORE GUESTS: 7085 € - Group of 4/5 guests: 8898 € - Single room supplement: 1021€
GUIDE: English, Italian, French speaking
Deposit at the booking:
The deposit is intended as 30% of the total. For more information, you can view our information.
GUINEA BISSAU, GUINEA CONAKRY, SIERRA LEONE, LIBERIA, IVORY COAST, GHANA, TOGO AND BENIN This itinerary is part of Sahara & West Africa Grand Expedition from Marrakech to Dakar and Cotonou. Starting by the discovery of the less known part of Guinea Bissau with a “tribal concert” of the Griot: descendent of traditional musician and story tellers lineage uninterrupted from 12th century. Following the coast and inland of Guinea Gulf, between pristine shores and islands… DEPARTURES: 20 December 2021; 5 March 2022 (reverse itinerary); 19 December 2022
Starting with the discovery of the less known part of Guinea Bissau with a “tribal concert” of the Griot: descendent of traditional musician and story tellers lineage uninterrupted from 12th century. Following the coast and inland of Guinea Gulf, between pristine shores and islands. Experience remotes forests where foreigners don’t arrive mountains, liana bridges, isolated villages house of Bird Men initiates, dancing masks and secrete animistic rituals. Witness the highest concentration of ancient trade and slave castles. Discover the African origins of Voodoo: trance rituals still practiced in the largest stilt village of the continent.
Participate to the contemporary African vibe: stroll in the intense city life of Freetown, Monrovia, Abidjan and Accra, feel the exciting mix of modernity, culture, music and fusion cuisine.
This itinerary is part of the Grand Expedition across West Africa an adventurous and enjoyable experience. Transport in in comfortable air-conditioned 4WD vehicles and minibuses.
Accommodations: in the capitals, 4 stars hotels with possibility to upgrade to 5 stars. In the inland the best available: mainly new 3 stars hotels with self-contain and air-conditioned rooms. One night at a fix and cosy camp in the luxuriant vegetation of an island.
To complete the expedition, we can arrange on request, an extension to Nigerian capital: speed boat navigation to join Lagos via the lagoon. With is 21 million inhabitants, Lagos is the largest metropolis south of Sahara, a terrific melting-pot of contemporary Africa.
Day 1: BISSAU Guinea Bissau
Arrival to Bissau airport, transfer to the hotel.
Day 2: THE GRIOT: THE AFRICAN TROBADORS Guinea Bissau Early morning departure. After lunch we leave the main road for a small village in the Malinké region.
The Malinké are the descendants of the ancient Mali Empire and are spread on the current territory of Mali, Guinea Conakry, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Guinea Bissau. Griots are a cast of musician-storytellers dating back tothe Mali Empire. The village we visit is known for the Griot families that have maintained these traditions from the time of the Empire. They are well-known also for their skills in producing musical instruments, they will perform a concert for us. Arrival at Gabu.
DAY 3: THE LARGEST MOUNTAIN MASSIF Guinea Conakry A human-made barge will allow us to cross Rio Corubal, the natural border between the two Guineas and bring us to the small border posts of Guinea Conakry, in a region inhabited by the Malinké and the Fulla (Peul) tribes; stopover in the villages where the arrival of foreigners is a very rare event.
Joining the main road, we will start penetrating the Fouta Djalon massif. Thanks to the fresh and salubrious climate, this area was the favourite holiday place by the French during the colonial time. Wood of conifers is left as memory of that time. Considered the most spectacular area of Guinea: mountains, plateau and savannah are alternated with deep humid valleys.
This large mountain massif is the “water reservoir”, as a matter of fact, three rivers start from Guinea which give name to four nations: Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Gambia. This territory are populated by the Fulani, famous for their beauty and considered the greatest stockbreeders of cow of the West Africa. We will visit isolated villages, composed of large clay houses decorated with bas relief, high conical roofs with several layers of straw.
Day 4: FOUTA DJALON Guinea Conakry Full day dedicated to discovering Fouta Djalon, where the mountains meet the savannah, deep valleys and the highest waterfalls framed by the forest. Peul ethnic group, (called also Fula’s) come from this area. In the XVII century the Fula’s (Peul) Jihad started from these mountains, the Peul conquered the majority of the savannah till Cameroun and became the largest group in sub-Saharan savannas. A very large clay round hut with a decorated grass roof is where the main council sits and where the traditional chiefs were nominated, thanks to our connections we will ask to be received by chiefs and dignitaries siting in council….
Arrival at Dalaba at 1200 m. ( 3900 Ft.) altitude.
Day 5: AFRICAN BAS-RELIEF Guinea Conakry Visit to Dalaba small and quiet town. Of a particular interest is the “casa a palabra” (the house of words) with fine bas-relief in a pure Peul architectonical style. Here the chiefs used to gather to meet the colonial administration.
Visit to the villa built by the colonial governor and later used by the first president of independent Guinea. The leader of the independence was Sekou Touré, one of the most radical anti-colonials; he refused any cooperation with French, he made a connection with the Soviet Union bloc and tied friendly relationship with Ceausescu. Under Sekou Touré, the country became more and more isolated and the government turned into a dictatorship. Some villas used by the ministers and by the guests of Sekou Touré are reminiscences of that time. In a ruined villa, Miriam Makeba met and married Stokley Carmichael, an exile from the US who was among the inspirators of the armed wing of Black Panter.
We will live Dalaba following the southern slope of the massif to reach Mamou, an interesting trading town and its market.
Days 6 & 7: MASKS IN THE FOREST Guinea Conakry / Sierra Leone A tiny small track will bring us to a small border with a remote area of Sierra Leone, arrival at the village of Kamakwie, in this region, where foreigners are rare, if we are lucky, we will attend the traditional dances and the exit of sacred masks, called here “devils”.
Next day drive in the direction of Freetown peninsula.
Day 8: FREETOWN PENINSULA Sierra Leone Freetown origins: in 1786 the first 308 freed slaves came to Sierra Leone from America where they have fought in the independence war on the side of the British, after having lost the war the British sent them to Sierra Leone. Few months after their arrival, the newcomers were starving, got new and unknown diseases and fight with the locals, who hardly stand them. Few years after during a Napoleonic war, Freetown has been attacked by seven vessels of the French navy and destroyed. Few survivors escape on the pirogues sent by… the slaves’ traders… From 1807, due to the abolition of the slave trade by the British Empire, the ships of the slave’s traders caught by the British navy freed the slaves in Sierra Leone.
In 1808 Freetown became the capital45 of the first British colony in tropical Africa. At that time Krio, or ex slaves, were more than 50.000 creating an elite who put pressure on the colonial administration for a better education. In 1845 was built Fourah Bay the first University in west Africa. During Colonial time Freetown was known as the “Athens of West Africa”. Drive along the coast at the slopes of the Freetown peninsula mountains… only the yellow of the beaches divide the green of the lush vegetation from the blue of the ocean. The country has been named after these mountains, the mountains of lion. A local boat will bring us to Banana island.
Day 9: BANANA ISLAND Sierra Leone Full day spent circumnavigating, exploring, walking and discovering this pristine island with mountains in large primary forests, villages and remote beaches. For the more adventurous of us, a half day walk to explore the forest or continue the circumnavigation of the island.
Day 10: BUNDO: FEMALE MASKS Sierra Leone Brief navigation, to reach our vehicles and departure northbound.
In most parts of Africa, the masks are male’s prerogative, however among the Mende people and neighbours populations the masks Bundo are a female’s domain and they have a crucial role in the initiation rites. We reach a tiny village to assist at the exit of these masks, an event that calls for the participation of a colourful crowd.
Day 11: DIAMONDS Sierra Leone Diamond seekers: the possibility of finding a “fortune” can become true just for the few lucky ones. Diamonds have played an important role in the recent troubled history of the country. We will follow a track to reach a village with huts made by clay and straw.
After asking the permission to the chief, some villagers will take us to the site where we can meet the diamonds’ seekers. The local person will explain us the technics of artisanal mining and “sand washing”. A spectacular road in the forest will bring us to the Mano River, the natural border with Liberia. After the border formalities, we will continue to reach Monrovia in the evening.
Day 12: LIBERIA: THE LAND OF FREEMEN Sierra Leone / Liberia Liberia is the only African country which has never been either a colony or a protectorate; Liberia was founded by Krio, the freed slaves who came back to Africa from America, for this reason was named “Liberia”. Krio are 5% of the population and they are the main actors of the economy and politics, they are considered the creator of the Nation and of the modern economy . 80% of the population speaks the Krio language, a sort of American English “Pidgin”.
Our ocean-view hotel is the best starting point to visit town. Freemasonry had a great impact on the history of Liberia and Krio culture, visit of the Grand Masonic Temple imposing building. A symbol of Monrovia is what left of the Ducor Palace Hotel, inaugurated in 1960 was one of the first five stars in Africa. Located on a rocky hill in the highest point of Monrovia, dominate the whole town and the gulf. The hotel hosted social events and parties of the African political elite at the time of independence. In the large swimming pool facing the ocean Idi Amin used to swim caring his gun at the belt while his friend Miriam Makeba was singing. After the civil war the building was looted several times, the hotel is now abandoned and closed, but seeking the right permission, we may be able to visit it.
In 2008 the government made a deal with Ghaddafi to rebuild this hotel, however the project, as many other Libyan development projects, never came to conclusion thanks to the war that Europe and America made to overthrow Ghaddafi.
The building of the National Museum his himself a display of Krio traditional architecture, inside we discover a large collection of ancient masks and ritual objects and a photographic show about the civil war which took place between 1989 and 2003. Old colonial buildings, stone Krio churches will be also part of this intriguing town visit.
Day 13: AFRICAN WILD FORESTS Liberia / Guinea Conakry
Early morning departure for a long day of driving to the northern part of Liberia and to the greatest forest region in Guinea Conakry. Crossed the border we will drive through larges rubber plantation (hevea) to reach Nzerekore and Macenta in a hilly and luxuriant landscape. After dinner we live the hotel to join a village and participate to a spectacular dance: the masks will live the forest and dance at the light of a large fire….
Day 14: BIRD MEN, TOMA MASKS & LIANA BRIDGE Guinea Conakry
A small track in the lush vegetation will bring us to a remote village to assist to one of the more spectacular, and less known, sacred dances of West African forests: the Bird Men. With the face painted in Kaolin and totally dressed in feathers, the Bird Men belong to a special initiation that the fathers has secretly passed on to their sons over the centuries. The Bird Men are believed to have magical powers that can make them invisible, thus they are the best messengers during tribal wars, able to cross the enemy lines. Tom-tom drummers and all the village will participate to the dances. Toma, locally called Loma, have also different masks living in the sacred forest…
This region hides many secrets. The liana bridges are masterpiece of an authentic “tribal technology” and can measure 70-meter length. They are built exclusively with vegetal materials, as wood and lianas without the use of nails or rope nor other materials foreign to the forest. Only the initiated can harvest the liana and wood and leave it in the forest, is believed that a powerful spirit will build the bridge in one night. During the preparation of a new bridge needier women nor not initiated are allowed in the forest, to guarantee the secrecy of this “magic technology.
Arrival to Nzerekore after an intense day.
Day 15: PRIMATES Guinea Conakry / Ivory Coast
Early morning departure from Nzerekore, the main settlement of the Forest Region. We reach Bossou village in time for a walk to discover a forest, where a group of chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes) lives. The inhabitants consider them the reincarnation of their ancestors and therefore hunting them is forbidden. The chimpanzee are constantly monitored by the researchers and therefore they are easy to approach.
The road will bring us to Ivory Coast border. When mount Tonkpi with its pic comes into view, we are close to our destination. The small town of Man, surrounded by 18 green mountains is the capital of the We, Dan and Guéré ethnic groups known for the mask, considered masterpieces of African Art. We will spend two nights at our hotel in Man.
Day 16: DAN MASKS Ivory Coast
Full day dedicated to Man region. In a nearby tiny village, masks will emerge from the forest towards us. In the cosmogony of the Dan people, there is a creator god that communicates with humans only through its intermediaries, the masks: during the mask dance the distance between the human and the spirit worlds disappears, the cosmic and the social orders are restored, and gratitude is expressed to the gods and the ancestors. Dan Masks are one of the finest tribal mask thanks to the delicate balance of shapes that symbolize beauty.
Man, market is an important market with villagers coming from the region and from the neighbours countries. It will be possible to find a wild choice of handicraft and, with some luck, authentic tribal masks and ritual objects.
Day 17: MAGIC TRADITIONS Ivory Coast
Full day dedicated to discovering masks and magic traditions. Only 4×4 vehicles drive to the remote villages in the forest to encounter the Guere ethnic group, where the arrival of foreigners is a rare event. If Dan’s masks are considered among the more refined example of beauty and aesthetic, Guéré masks are known for the powerful and rough aspect. We will discover the powerful Guéré Mask dances, and (if we are lucky) the rare “Jugglers” performances. Girls Juggling is an ancient tradition which is vanishing, nevertheless we have been able to discover one of the last villages where is still practiced. Return to the main road to reach the town of Daloa in the evening.
Day: 18 CATHEDRAL IN THE SAVANNAH Ivory Coast
Today we drive southbound, continuing our journey across coffee and cocoa plantations, dotted only by small villages. Ivory Coast is the world’s main cocoa producer, the second is Ghana and, together, they represent more than half of the world production.
In a village we attend the Zaouli dancing masks. Zaouli is a traditional dance of the Guro tribe. The Zaouli mask, was created in the 1950s, probably inspired by a girl named “Djela Lou Zaouli”. However, stories on the origins are varied, and each mask can have its own symbolic history. The uniqueness of Zaouli dance is the fine and sophisticated movement of the legs and the fits.
Afternoon arrival to Yamoussoukro, the country’s formal capital since 1983, is the native village of Houphouët-Boigny, the first President of the Ivory Coast. Here the Ivorian dream of the 1970s and 1980s has come true, the dream of a country that, despite its shortage of major natural resources, has create the largest economy in French west Africa.
We visit the Basilica of the Virgin of Peace, inspired of St Peter’s in Rome, is the largest building of Christianity on earth, unique the high colourful glass windows. We see wide boulevards where the few cars try to avoid the big potholes, Zebus and chickens. The huge government buildings, the lofty hotels up to 14 floors high, and even an artificial lake inhabited by crocodiles have a feeling of abandoned.
Day 19: ABIDJAN, SKYSCRAPERS AND LAGOONS Ivory Coast
Motorway departure for Abidjan, beyond the lagoon, the “plateau” (the City District) is growing very fast, not horizontally as in most African towns but vertically, with its large modern buildings and skyscrapers. Not much land is available and the little available must be continually recovered from the waters of the Ebrié Lagoon. The modern City District is defined to the west by the harbour and its endless queues of people waiting for a public boat, and to the east by the silhouette of Saints Peter & Paul Cathedral. Chaotic traffic is the negative result of the fast-economic development of this country that after the civil war has some time reached the 6% of the GDP.
31st December, great gala dinner and dances at the hotel, celebrating new year in the typical Abidjan’s way!
Day 20: GRAND BASSAM, ABIDJAN Ivory Coast
Drive to Grand Bassam: old town built on a sand bank between the lagoon and the ocean. It was the former capital of the French Ivory Coast colony and now a maritime leisure resort for the Abidjanese. Thanks to its calm avenues shaded by tall trees, large bougainvillea and well-preserved colonial buildings, Grand Bassam has a magic atmosphere. The old post office is a jewel of colonial architecture. The Costume Museum, in the former governor’s palace, with its large outer staircase, is a true architectural gem and its unique collection of tribal costumes, masks, ornaments and ethnographic photographs gives an interesting perception of the country history and culture.
DAY 20: GRAND BASSAM Ivory Coast
Drive to Grand Bassam: old Town built on a sand bank between the lagoon and the ocean. It was the former capital of the French Ivory Coast colony and now a maritime leisure resort for the Abidjanese. Thanks to its calm avenues shaded by tall trees, large bougainvillea and well-preserved colonial buildings, Grand Bassam has a magic atmosphere. The old post office is a jewel of colonial architecture. The Costume Museum, in the former governor’s palace, with its large outer staircase is a true architectural gem and its unique collection of tribal costumes, masks, ornaments and ethnographic photographs gives an interesting perception of the country history and culture. Continuation in direction East to the small town of Aboisso.
DAY 21: GOLD COAST Ivory Coast / Ghana
Early departure, drive to the Ghana border. In Axim visit of the St Antonio fort, built by the Portuguese in 1515 at the estuary of Ankobra River in a region rich in Gold. The coast of Ghana is unique in the whole Africa for the concentration of ancient castles and forts. More than 80 fortifications where built by Europeans over three centuries, which served for trading gold, ivory and slaves. The first Portuguese navigatore named this region Gold Coast because of the abundance of the gold traded there. 31st december: Gala dinner, in the African joyful stile.
DAY 22: ELMINA UNIQUE ATMOSPHERE Ghana
Full day spent discovering the ancient slave trade castles and syncretic animistic shrines. After a stop at Cape Coast,we will visit Elmina Castle, the oldest European building in Africa.
Sao Jorge da Mina was erected by the Portuguese in 1482. The castle has been used as a warehouse to trade gold, ivory, and eventually slaves. What we visit today is the result of successive extension works and is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Facing the castle, there is the fishing harbour with hundreds of colourful and large fishing wooden canoes. In the old town and neighbours, we will discover the Posuban, shrines of the “Asafo companies” where the Asafo “warriors” still pour libations. The alleys in the old town have a unique atmosphere, bringing us back long time before the colonial era when Elmina was the first place of fix exchanges between Europeans and Sub Sahara Africa.
DAY 23: ACCRA “THE CAPITAL” Ghana
The capital of Ghana has maintained its special identity despite the fast-paced development currently underway in this intriguing African vibe. We explore the old of James Town area, inhabited by the local population known as the Ga. Our tour ends with the visit of a workshop where they specialize in building fantasy coffins. These special handcrafted coffins can take on any shape: fruit, animals, fish, cars, airplanes…. the only limit being imagination!
DAY 24: LOME: COSMOPOLITAN AND STYLISH CAPITAL Ghana / Togo
Morning drive to Togo border.
Lome, the vibrant capital of Togo, is the only African city which has been ruled a ruled by Germans, British and French and has attract traders from different African countries. It is also one of the rare capitals in the world bordering another nation. These elements have developed a unique lifestyle of its inhabitants, of is multi facet cuisine and is the architecture. Lome is a meeting point for people, trade and cultures, a cosmopolitan, but still in human size capital. We will visit: the central market with its famous “Nana Benz”, women who control the market of the expensive “pagne” (colourful cloths) sold all over West Africa the colonial buildings and the largest “fetish market” in whole Africa, where we can find an eclectic assortment of all the necessary ingredients for love potions and magical concoctions.
DAY 25: VOODOO Togo / Benin
Voodoo is the main religion of the coastal area of Togo and Benin, here authentic ceremonies are common: the frenetic rhythm of drums and the chants of the adepts “call” the Voodoo spirits who take possession of some participants. The possessed fall into a deep trance: eyes rolling back, grimaces, convulsions. Sakpata, Heviosso, Mami Water are just some of the voodoo divinities who can manifest during a ceremony… Surrounded by the magic atmosphere of the ceremony, we will understand what people mean when they say: “In your Churches you pray God; in our Voodoo shrine we become Gods!”. Border with Benin and arrival to the small town of Grand Popo.
DAY 26: OUIDAH, AFRO-BRASILIAN CULTURE Benin
Between lagoons and ocean, we will discover Zangbeto cult. Zangbeto Mask is very tall and covered with coloured straw. It represents wild, non-human spirits (the forces of nature and of the night that inhabited the Earth before human). The mask wearers belong to a secret society and keep their identity hidden as the non-initiated cannot know who they are. When Zangbeto dances is an event for the village. Its performance guarantees protection against bad spirits and witchcraft. The spinning movement of the mask symbolizes the spiritual cleaning of the village and Zangbeto also performs « miracles » to prove it powers. Drive to Ouidah, this small town was conquered by the Dahomey Kingdom during the 18th century to become one of the main slave ports. We the start visit following the “slave road” to the beach, the point of “no return” where slaves were shipped to the “new world”. Ouidah enjoys a rare Afro-Brazilian architecture, where the python temple faces the Catholic Cathedral. The laid-back attitude of the locals blends in harmoniously with the thunder of the distant waves and the rhythm of the drums – a timeless atmosphere well described by Bruce Chatwin in his book “The Vice-Roy of Ouidah”. On foot we visit the Python Temple and the Portuguese Fort, now a small but interesting museum on the history of Ouidah and the transatlantic slave trade and the links that this trade have created between Guinea Gulf countries and the Caribbean.
DAY 27: THE STILTS VILLAGE Benin
Drive for miles on the fisherman track between endless yellow beaches, tall palm trees straw huts and colourful pirogues. We will leave our vehicles and cross Lake Nokwe on a motorized boat to reach Ganvié, the largest and most beautiful African village on stilts. The approximately 25,000 inhabitants are part of the Tofinou ethnic group and build their wooden houses on teak stilts. Breeding fish with an ancient tribal technology is their main activity. Ganvié has managed to preserve its traditions and environment despite the long-lasting human presence in a closed setting; and the lake is not over-fished. Daily life unfolds in the dugout canoes that adults and children row with ease using brightly coloured paddles. From these canoes men fishing, women expose goods at the “floating market”, children go to school and play, in Ganvie children are said to learn to swim first than to walk.
Day room available in Cotonou and transfer to the airport.
UNIQUE DEPARTURES: EXPEDITION LEADER: Alberto Nicheli, TransAfrica founder, has been travelling in West Africa since 1975. He has led more than a hundred expeditions in West Africa and 64 Sahara expeditions, including solo crossing of the desert, ethnological research on Tuareg and rock art. He has organized the logistics of a documentary film for Discovery Channel on the Caravans of the Niger and has assisted in numerous research projects on West Africa with Angela Fisher and Carol Beckwith from National Geographic, as well as in different television programs on West Africa. He is an expert in Tribal Art.
EXPLORATORY ITINERARY: This itinerary is an expedition; participants must be flexible and ready to enjoy the unique encounters but also some unexpected situations that are also part of the “African Experience”.
VISAS: Guinea Bissau: single entry visa required, it is possible to obtain the visa upon the arrival in Bissau airport. Guinea Conakry: e-visa https://www.paf.gov.gn/visa/ ; two entries needed Liberia, Ivory Coast: single entry visas required from the embassies. The Ivory Coast E-Visa is not valid when crossing the border by land. Sierra Leone: visa available at the border (cost 100 USD). Togo: visa available at the border, please confirm with us before. Benin: E-Visa: www.evisa.gouv.bj/en/ Ghana: Single entry visa required; the visa is issued only at the embassy competent with the country of residence. Lagos Extension: Nigerian single-entry visa required; the visa is issued only at the embassy competent with the country of residence.
LUGGAGE: due to the exploratory itinerary, please to be contained in 20 kg (45 Lbs.) suggested duffle bags.
TRAVEL INSURANCE: Not included. Mandatory for medical assistance, repatriation, material and physical damages.
TRANSPORT: Mainly 4×4 vehicles, minibuses
MEALS: lunches: cold meals (picnics or sandwiches and fruit) or at restaurants. Dinners: at the hotel restaurants (pre-select menu). Included one bottle of water each day during the visits.
NOTICE: The itinerary is designed to discover fascinating places, where the visit of a foreigner sometimes remains an exceptional event. Participants need to be cooperative, tolerant and flexible to fully enjoy their tour and appreciate the unique nature, as well as the spontaneous hospitality of the local populations, African magic and mystery, its metaphysics, ceremonies, life philosophies and religious beliefs that people are willing to share with us. Itineraries, visits and overnight accommodations are subject to change or modification by the organizer due to force majeure and can be modified or adapted to local conditions.
Assistance at airport upon arrival the first day and at the departure the last day of the tour
Transfers and tour in 4WD vehicles, minibus and boats
Tours and visits as per the programme
Accommodation in standard rooms, as per itinerary
All meals, from breakfast of day 2 to breakfast of last day
The equivalent of one bottle of mineral water during the transfers
Entrance fees to festivals, cultural sites and events; parks and protected areas
First Aid box
All service charges and taxes
Prices do not include:
Earlier (prior to day 1) and/or later (after last day) transfers from and to airport
Mineral water and drinks at restaurants and hotels
Fees for personal photos and videos
Personal and travel insurance (compulsory)
Tips for drivers, guides, portage and hotel staff
Costs related to delayed program or lost luggage
Any item of personal nature such as phone calls, laundry, etc
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